Word Analysis/Decoding

How to Teach Reading Lesson Plans: Uses the process of word analysis/decoding to identify and comprehend words in context.

1) Utilizes prior knowledge
Provide the students a sentence to complete (e.g., The student sat in a ch ; The man drove the tr on the highway.)
Have students fill in missing words and save as part of electronic student portfolio.

2) Extends word patterns (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings)
Let the students work in cooperative learning groups. The students will be provided with a list of root words and file cards containing prefixes and suffixes. Students will make new words by adding prefixes and/or suffixes to the root words.
Provide a list of commonly used prefixes and/or suffixes and have students match these with the correct meaning.
Have the students use inflectional endings (e.g., ed, d, t, s) to change the tense and/or meanings of a list of words.

3) Expands sight vocabulary
Provide words for use in labeling a picture/diagram (e.g., parts of a flower).
Have students list and define unfamiliar words in a story.
Have the students create personal dictionary of unfamiliar words.
Have the students use flash cards.
Use a writing/publishing tool to create students’ personal dictionary of unfamiliar words. Look up definition in electronic dictionary and maintain word log in electronic student portfolios. and information on electronic student portfolio.

4) Decodes unknown words using the three-cueing system (e.g., semantics/context meaning, syntax/sentence structure, graphophonic/sound-symbol correspondence)
Select an unfamiliar story and have the students define new words based on surrounding sentences.
Have the students read a short passage and select word substitutions from a word box to replace underlined words in a previously read paragraph.
Have students maintain a word log of unfamiliar words as they read a selection.
Provide the students with scrambled sentences from a selection. The students will put sentences in a meaningful order. Suggestion: Use index cards for this strategy.
Have the students read a selection and identify the kinds of sentences (e.g., declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative).
Have the students locate words with similar word patterns (e.g., r-control vowels, hard/soft-c, ow, oo).
Use direct instruction and modeling techniques. The teacher will provide examples of various sentence patterns (e.g., noun + verb; noun + action verb + direct object; noun + linking verb + predicate nominative).
Have the students use word cards to develop examples of sentence patterns.
Assist the student in decoding unknown words by using the syntactical/grammar structure cues through grammatical questioning techniques that utilize sentence patterns.

5) Expands usage of antonyms, synonyms, homonyms
Have the students make a chart of antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms.
Have the students use flash cards to play matching game with antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms.
Have the students create personal thesaurus after maintaining a word log.
Have the students develop a story, commercial, or poem using at least five antonyms, synonyms, or homonyms.

6) Differentiates between contractions and possessives
Give students a list of contractions and possessives to use in a sentence (e.g., it’s—its, you’re—your, they’re—their).
Give students a list of words to categorize as contractions or possessives.
Have students edit paragraph containing miscues with contractions and possessives.

7) Utilizes spelling patterns and phonetic generalizations (e.g., â = awful, caught)
Have students choose words from a story with similar spelling patterns and phonetic generalizations.
Have students write a poem using words with similar spelling patterns. Use a writing/publishing tool to write poems and e-mail them to peers, principals, or parents.

8) Uses multiple meanings of words/homographs
Have the students select correct homograph for sentences using context cues.
Illustrate homographs/multiple meanings (bat—animal, bat—baseball bat). Use a graphics/drawing tool to illustrate homographs/multiple meaning words. .
Have the students define homographs using dictionary.
Have the students write a sentence that demonstrates multiple meaning of words (homographs).
Use a writing/publishing tool and an online/electronic dictionary to help students locate, define, and create sentences. and activity.

9) Uses figurative language/sound devices (e.g., rhyming, alliteration, onomatopoeia)
Give students a list of rhyming words and have them create a poem.
Have students create tongue twisters.
Have students select, from an array, words that demonstrate onomatopoeia.
Use a writing/publishing tool to create a booklet of students’ poems and tongue twisters. .

Use a graphics/drawing tool to illustrate students’ work.

10) Identifies/spells frequently used words correctly.
Teach letter/sound (grapheme/phoneme) relationships.


38 Phonograms

V-C/V-C-C V-C-e/V-V0C Dipthongs, r-controlled, others

a at, am, ag, ack, ank, ap, an, ab ay, ail, ain, ake

e ell, est, ed eed ew

i ill, ip, ick, ing, in, ink, im ine ight

o ot, op, ob, ock out, ow, ore

u unk, ug, uck, um

y y

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